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Le chef confédéré John Hunt Morgan est capturé

Le chef confédéré John Hunt Morgan est capturé


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Le 26 juillet 1863, le chef de la cavalerie confédérée John Hunt Morgan et 360 de ses hommes sont capturés à Salineville, Ohio, lors d'un raid spectaculaire sur le Nord. À partir de juillet 1862, Morgan a effectué quatre raids majeurs sur le territoire du Nord ou tenu par le Nord au cours d'une année. Bien qu'ils aient eu une importance stratégique limitée, les raids ont stimulé le moral du Sud et capturé des fournitures indispensables.

Le quatrième raid de Morgan a commencé le 2 juillet 1863, lorsque lui et 2 400 soldats ont quitté le Tennessee et se sont dirigés vers la rivière Ohio. Il espérait détourner l'attention du commandant de l'Union William Rosecrans, qui conduisait pour Chattanooga, Tennessee. Morgan a atteint la rivière en juillet 8, utilisant des bateaux à vapeur volés pour transporter ses forces jusqu'à l'Indiana. Pendant les deux semaines et demie suivantes, Morgan s'est déchaîné dans l'Indiana et l'Ohio, feignant de se diriger vers Cincinnati, puis traversant le sud de l'Ohio. Sa force a rencontré peu de résistance et a dispersé les milices locales qui leur ont fait face. Avec la cavalerie de l'Union à sa poursuite, Morgan se dirigea vers la Pennsylvanie. Pendant plus d'une semaine, Morgan et ses troupes ont passé 21 heures par jour en selle. À Pomeroy, Ohio, Morgan a perdu plus de 800 hommes lorsque les Yankees l'ont rattrapé et ont capturé une grande partie de sa force. Lui et les autres membres de son commandement ont été forcés plus au nord, et le 26 juillet, les hommes épuisés se sont rendus.

En fin de compte, seuls 400 des soldats de Morgan sont rentrés sains et saufs dans le sud. Les personnes capturées ont été dispersées dans les camps de prisonniers du Nord. Morgan et ses officiers ont été envoyés au nouveau pénitencier de l'État de l'Ohio. Lui et ses hommes ont creusé un tunnel le 27 novembre 1863; cependant, Morgan a été tué au combat un an plus tard.

LIRE LA SUITE : États confédérés d'Amérique


John Hunt Morgan

John Hunt Morgan – connu sous le nom de « Coup de tonnerre de la Confédération » et connu comme l'idéal du romantique cavalier sudiste – est né le 1er juin 1825 à Huntsville, en Alabama, mais est parfaitement identifié avec l'État d'origine de sa mère, le Kentucky. Morgan a déménagé dans l'État du Bluegrass alors qu'il était enfant et a brièvement fréquenté le Transylvania College à Lexington avant d'être expulsé pour mauvaise conduite. Il s'est enrôlé dans le 1st Kentucky Cavalry au début de la guerre du Mexique et a servi sous Zachary Taylor, se distinguant à la bataille de Buena Vista. Après la guerre, de retour dans son Kentucky bien-aimé, Morgan est devenu un fabricant de chanvre prospère et a équipé de sa propre poche une entreprise de milice, connue sous le nom de « Lexington Rifles ».

Pendant la crise de la sécession, Morgan ne partagea pas les hésitations de son État et s'associa immédiatement à la nouvelle Confédération du Sud, et mena ses « Lexington Rifles » à Bowling Green pour s'associer au général Buckner. Morgan est nommé colonel en avril 1862 et participe à la bataille de Shiloh avant d'être attaché à la division de Joseph Wheeler dans l'armée du Tennessee du général Braxton Bragg. Morgan était cependant loin d'être «attaché». Cet été-là, Morgan commença à diriger le genre de raids rapides et audacieux qui caractérisaient les chefs de cavalerie confédérés pendant la guerre.

Le 4 juillet 1862, Morgan entreprend une course de mille milles à travers le Kentucky – détruisant des lignes de chemin de fer et de télégraphe, saisissant des fournitures, faisant des prisonniers et faisant des ravages à l'arrière de l'Union. Son raid a fait la une des journaux nationaux et a contribué à cimenter la redoutable réputation du cavalier sudiste. Morgan a mené des efforts tout aussi réussis en octobre et décembre, qui ont finalement forcé quelque 20 000 soldats de l'Union à se détacher du front pour garder les lignes de communication et d'approvisionnement.

L'année suivante, en juillet 1863, alors que la Confédération était sous le choc des doubles pertes de Vicksburg et de Gettysburg, Morgan commença son raid le plus ambitieux de la guerre. Contre les ordres explicites de Bragg, Morgan et 2 400 hommes traversèrent l'Ohio et parcoururent plus de mille milles le long de la rive nord de la rivière. Pendant trois semaines, Morgan terrorisa les défenses locales du sud de l'Indiana et de l'Ohio avant d'être capturé à Salineville par la cavalerie de l'Union sous le commandement du général Edward H. Hobson et envoyé au pénitencier de l'État de l'Ohio à Columbus. Incroyablement, le 26 novembre 1863, le même jour où le général Patrick Cleburne défendait obstinément Ringgold Gap dans le nord de la Géorgie, Morgan s'échappa de prison et retourna dans les lignes confédérées.

Morgan a été nommé chef du département de Virginie du Sud-Ouest en avril 1864 et déterminé à attaquer Knoxville, Tennessee, une ville avec une population largement pro-Union. Alors qu'il bivouaquait à Greeneville, Tennessee le 3 septembre, Morgan fut pris dans une attaque surprise et abattu par un soldat de l'Union qui avait autrefois servi sous ses ordres.

Morgan est souvent inclus parmi John S. Mosby, Jeb Stuart et Nathan Bedford Forrest dans la mémoire de « Lost Cause » comme un exemple des qualités de combat supérieures du cavalier sudiste. Il est enterré à Lexington.


John Hunt Morgan : cavalier chevaleresque ou bandit fantasque ?

Bien qu'il n'ait jamais dépassé le grade de général de brigade, John Hunt Morgan était l'un des cavaliers et des raiders les plus colorés de la Confédération. Ses exploits l'ont poussé loin derrière les lignes fédérales et lui ont valu une réputation d'audace et de créativité - même des comparaisons favorables avec Francis Marion, le célèbre « renard des marais » du Sud de l'époque de la guerre d'indépendance.

Né en Alabama mais Kentuckien depuis l'enfance, Morgan n'a pas initialement soutenu la cause confédérée dans son État d'origine, allant jusqu'à écrire à son frère qu'il pensait qu'Abraham Lincoln serait un bon président. Cependant, alors que les tensions augmentaient dans le Kentucky et que le gouvernement de l'État commençait à se briser sous le poids de sa neutralité défaillante et auto-imposée, il a commencé à reconsidérer sa position.

Le général John Hunt Morgan a mené des raids dans le Kentucky, l'Indiana et l'Ohio. Bibliothèque du Congrès

Avant la guerre, Morgan était un homme d'affaires de Lexington qui avait combattu en tant que soldat de cavalerie lors de la bataille de Buena Vista en 1847. De retour de la guerre du Mexique, il se maria et réintégra la vie privée, bien qu'il ait levé et commandé deux compagnies de milice dans les années 1850. En septembre 1861, à la suite du décès de sa femme des suites d'une maladie prolongée, Morgan et la majorité de sa milice « Lexington Rifles » sont entrés dans le Tennessee pour s'enrôler dans l'armée confédérée. Le groupe a formé le nœud de la 2e cavalerie du Kentucky, qui a combattu avec distinction à la bataille de Shiloh.

La première grande escapade de Morgan eut lieu à l'été 1862, lorsque lui et 900 cavaliers passèrent trois semaines à traverser le Kentucky, perturbant la progression des forces de l'Union dans l'État et suscitant l'espoir des sécessionnistes qui cherchaient à intégrer pleinement l'État dans la Confédération. Morgan et ses raiders auraient capturé et libéré sur parole 1 200 soldats de l'Union, acquis plusieurs centaines de chevaux et confisqué ou détruit des quantités massives de fournitures fédérales.

Une édition d'août 1862 du Harper's Weekly décrivait Morgan comme une « guérilla et un bandit » avec des « instincts de prédateur » et qualifiait ses hommes de « bande de vagabonds téméraires » qui passaient leur temps à « brûler des ponts, déchirer des voies ferrées, voler des trains de ravitaillement, et piller et gaspiller les quelques parties prospères restantes du Kentucky. » Le même article, cependant, a également admis certaines des caractéristiques qui ont donné à Morgan un culte de la personnalité dans le Sud - "le courage le plus désespéré" et "certaines des qualités chevaleresques de son homonyme et prototype, Morgan le boucanier de la mer des Caraïbes". - avant de noter que ceux-ci "ne le sauveront cependant pas d'être pendu s'il tombe entre les mains de ses concitoyens du Kentucky".

À l'été 1863, Morgan lance un raid encore plus audacieux à travers le Kentucky, l'Indiana et l'Ohio. Ses tactiques inventives et très réussies comprenaient que son opérateur télégraphique se fasse passer pour un soldat de l'Union et envoie des messages faux et extrêmement divergents sur les actions, les objectifs et la force des troupes de Morgan, créant de la confusion et entravant toute réponse. Malgré un grand succès initial, Morgan est vaincu à la bataille de Buffington Island, Ohio, le 19 juillet 1863, et quelque 750 cavaliers confédérés sont capturés. Quelques jours plus tard, poursuivis par la cavalerie fédérale, 300 des hommes de Morgan ont traversé la rivière Ohio gonflée en Virginie-Occidentale, le reste a continué vers le nord et l'est, espérant avoir une chance de traverser la rivière vers une sécurité relative. Après une autre défaite à la bataille de Salineville le 26 juillet, Morgan est capturé et emmené avec certains de ses officiers au pénitencier de l'État de l'Ohio, tandis que la majorité des hommes enrôlés sont envoyés au camp Douglas de Chicago en tant que prisonniers de guerre.

En novembre 1863, Morgan et six autres personnes se sont échappées en creusant un tunnel hors d'une cellule et en escaladant les murs de la prison. Deux ont été repris, mais les autres sont retournés vers le sud et Morgan a recommencé ses exploits militaires. Ses raids ultérieurs dans le Kentucky, avec une force inférieure à celle qu'il avait perdue lors de son grand raid, ont entraîné de lourdes pertes et des pillages ouverts, conduisant à des accusations de banditisme. Le 4 septembre 1864, alors qu'il tentait de s'échapper d'un raid de l'Union sur Greeneville, Tenn., Morgan a été tué par balle.

Bien que suivi à bout de souffle par la presse, le raid de Morgan n'a pas la plus grande importance stratégique d'autres événements militaires de l'été 1863, tels que les combats à Gettysburg et Vicksburg. De plus, Morgan a mené son raid en violation des ordres directs de ne pas traverser la rivière Ohio, lui faisant perdre la confiance de ses supérieurs et endommageant à jamais sa réputation. Pourtant, ses résultats étaient impressionnants. Il a capturé et libéré sur parole environ 6 000 soldats de l'Union, détruit 34 ponts, perturbé des voies ferrées sur 60 sites et détourné des dizaines de milliers de soldats d'autres fins. Rien qu'en Ohio, les hommes de Morgan ont volé 2 500 chevaux et pillé plus de 4 300 maisons et entreprises. Les demandes d'indemnisation des pertes infligées par les hommes de Morgan étaient encore déposées au début du 20e siècle.


Le raid de John Hunt Morgan dans le Kentucky

4 juillet 1862 Le colonel confédéré John Hunt Morgan a mené 867 partisans de cavalerie lors d'un raid dans le Kentucky pour harceler la ligne de ravitaillement de l'armée fédérale de l'Ohio.

Morgan a quitté Knoxville, Tennessee, avec des soldats expérimentés au combat du Texas, de Géorgie et de l'État d'origine de Morgan, le Kentucky. Leur objectif était Gallatin, Tennessee, de couper le Louisville & Nashville Railroad et de ralentir l'avance fédérale sur Chattanooga.

Le 7, les soldats de Morgan avaient terminé un trajet de 104 milles vers l'ouest à travers le plateau de Cumberland. Ils avaient repoussé les guérillas unionistes dans les montagnes de l'est du Tennessee avant de recruter des recrues dans la ville largement pro-confédérée de Sparta, Tennessee. Avec leur force maintenant augmentée à environ 1 100 hommes, les partisans se sont tournés vers le nord vers la ligne de l'État du Kentucky.

La force de Morgan a atteint Celina près de la frontière le lendemain. Au cours de la nuit, les confédérés se sont rendus à moins de cinq milles de Tompkinsville, Kentucky, qui était occupé par environ 400 hommes du 9th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Les Pennsylvaniens étaient connus pour leur rude occupation du Liban, ayant vulgairement insulté les femmes en leur disant que la seule façon de maintenir leur vertu était de « recoudre le bas de leurs jupons ».

Tôt le 9 juillet, Morgan a divisé son commandement, envoyant une partie attaquer la garnison par le nord tandis qu'il restait avec la partie qui attaquerait par le sud. L'aile sud a attaqué en premier, tirant sur les fédéraux avec des fusils et de l'artillerie à environ 300 mètres. Les fédéraux, dirigés par le major Thomas J. Jordan, ont tenté de s'échapper vers le nord dans les bois, mais l'aile nord de Morgan les a bloqués.

Les hommes de Jordan ont franchi la ligne nord et se sont enfuis vers Burkesville, suivis de près par les confédérés. Ils ont finalement encerclé Jordan et l'ont forcé à se rendre. Morgan a rapporté : « L'ennemi s'est enfui, laissant environ 22 morts et 30 à 40 blessés entre nos mains. Nous avons 30 prisonniers et mon escadron du Texas est toujours à la poursuite des fugitifs. Les soldats de Morgan ont saisi "un précieux train de bagages, composé d'une vingtaine de wagons et de 50 mules... ainsi que d'une quarantaine de chevaux de cavalerie et de fournitures de sucre, de café, etc."

Les confédérés n'ont perdu qu'un tué et trois blessés. Morgan a libéré tous les prisonniers en liberté conditionnelle à l'exception de Jordan, qui a été envoyé en prison à Richmond. Ses partisans continuèrent vers Glasgow cet après-midi-là, alors que les fédéraux voisins commençaient à entendre des rumeurs selon lesquelles des cavaliers confédérés se trouvaient dans l'État. Le général de brigade Jeremiah Boyle, commandant à Louisville, a informé le colonel John F. Miller à Nashville que jusqu'à 2 000 confédérés étaient en liberté dans le Kentucky et a demandé à Miller d'envoyer un régiment à Munfordville.

Morgan a capturé le dépôt d'approvisionnement fédéral à Glasgow le lendemain. Il a publié une proclamation dans l'espoir d'inspirer les Kentuckiens à « se lever, à s'armer et à chasser les envahisseurs de Hesse de leur sol » :

« Que chaque vrai patriote se lève pour l'appel ! Combattez pour vos familles, vos foyers, pour ceux que vous aimez le plus, vos consciences et pour le libre exercice de vos droits politiques, pour ne plus jamais être mis en danger par l'envahisseur hessois.

Les confédérés se sont approchés du Liban dans la nuit du 11, chassant les défenseurs fédéraux et forçant la reddition de la ville vers 22 heures. Boyle a demandé des renforts au général de division Don Carlos Buell : « Tous les rebelles de l'État se joindront à lui (Morgan) s'il n'y a pas une démonstration de force et de puissance envoyée en cavalerie. L'État sera désolé si cette affaire n'est pas réglée.

Boyle a d'abord rapporté que ses fédéraux avaient mis Morgan en déroute au Liban, mais ensuite il a appris la vérité et a commencé à paniquer :

« Morgan a fait le tour et s'est échappé et a brûlé le Liban se dirige vers Danville et vers Lexington. Je n'ai pas de cavalerie et peu de force. L'État tout entier sera en armes si le général Buell n'envoie pas une force pour l'abattre... Morgan est dévastateur à feu et à sang.

« Il est certain que Morgan ne peut pas être capturé sans cavalerie. Il va dévaster de grandes parties de l'État. Il vise Lexington. Je n'ai aucune force pour le prendre. Si Buell pouvait sauver le Kentucky, cela devait être fait instantanément. Je sais de quoi je parle.

Les résidents des villes voisines de Lexington et Louisville, et même de Cincinnati, Ohio, et Evansville, Indiana, ont commencé à paniquer, en raison de l'avance de Morgan ou des messages frénétiques de Boyle. Boyle a demandé au maire de Cincinnati, George Hatch, « d'envoyer sans délai autant d'hommes que possible par train spécial ». Les gouverneurs de l'Ohio et de l'Indiana ont appelé le département de la Guerre à envoyer des troupes pour arrêter Morgan, mais le secrétaire à la Guerre Edwin M. Stanton a déclaré que le département avait besoin de « connaissances plus précises avant de pouvoir agir intelligemment ».

Pendant ce temps, les confédérés de Morgan poursuivent leur raid, opérant près de Harrodsburg et de Cynthiana, et s'affrontant avec les fédéraux autour de Mackville. Il atteignit Georgetown le 15, où il publia une autre proclamation :

« Kentuckiens ! Je viens vous libérer du despotisme d'une faction tyrannique et sauver mon Etat natal des mains de vos oppresseurs. Partout le lâche ennemi a fui mes bras vengeurs. Ma brave armée est stigmatisée comme une bande de guérilleros et de maraudeurs. Ne le croyez pas. Je signale avec fierté leurs actes comme une réfutation de cette ignoble calomnie. Nous ne venons pas pour molester des individus pacifiques ou pour détruire la propriété privée, mais pour garantir une protection absolue à tous ceux qui ne sont pas en armes contre nous. Nous demandons seulement à rencontrer les légions de mercenaires de Lincoln. Les yeux de vos frères de la (Confédération) sont sur vous. Vos braves concitoyens affluent vers votre étendard. Nos armées avancent rapidement pour votre protection. Puis saluez-les avec les mains bien disposées de 50 000 braves du Kentucky. Leur avance est déjà avec vous. Puis : « Frappez pour les tombes vertes de vos pères ! Frappez pour vos autels et vos feux ! Dieu et ta terre natale.

Cependant, peu de Kentuckiens ont rejoint Morgan parce qu'ils craignaient des représailles fédérales après le départ de Morgan. Certains ont même rejoint les fédéraux pour aider à chasser Morgan de l'État.


Raid de Morgan dans le comté de Vinton

Au cours de l'été 1863, le général John Hunt Morgan, un chef de cavalerie confédéré du Kentucky, envahit le sud de l'Ohio avec 2 460 hommes montés. Tout au long de la campagne, les hommes de Morgan ont pillé et pillé avant d'être capturés par les forces de l'Union. Le 17 juillet, Morgan a conduit ses troupes à Wilkesville en volant des chevaux, en saccageant des magasins et en volant des citoyens privés. Cette nuit-là, Morgan et une partie de ses troupes se sont logés et ont pris leurs repas chez sa cousine germaine Ruth Virginia Althar Cline et son mari, le Dr William Cline. Les troupes de Morgan ont campé près de la maison de John et Eliza Levis où Eliza a cuisiné pour les hommes de peur qu'ils ne nuisent à sa famille. Des soldats supplémentaires du groupe de raid sont restés sur la place du village. La légende raconte que pendant que Morgan dormait au manoir Cline, son serviteur noir a volé son argent pillé, et les abolitionnistes Dr. Cline et Abraham Morris l'ont aidé à s'échapper vers la liberté sur le chemin de fer clandestin.

Érigé en 2002 par la Commission du bicentenaire de l'Ohio, la société Longaberger, le conseil du village de Wilkesville et la société historique de l'Ohio. (Numéro de marqueur 3-82.)

Thèmes et séries. Ce marqueur historique est répertorié dans ces listes de sujets : Patriots & Patriotism & Bull War, US Civil. En outre,

il est inclus dans la liste de la série Ohio Historical Society / The Ohio History Connection. Un mois historique important pour cette entrée est juillet 1838.

Emplacement. 39° 4,545′ N, 82° 19,659′ W. Marker est à Wilkesville, Ohio, dans le comté de Vinton. Marker se trouve sur Main Street (Ohio Route 124), sur la gauche lorsque vous voyagez vers l'est. Marker est dans le parc de la ville. Touchez pour la carte. Marker se trouve dans cette zone de bureau de poste : Wilkesville OH 45695, États-Unis d'Amérique. Touchez pour les directions.

Autres marqueurs à proximité. Au moins 8 autres marqueurs se trouvent à moins de 7 milles de ce marqueur, mesurés à vol d'oiseau. Henry Duc et les défenseurs de notre pays (à distance de cri de ce marqueur) Wilkesville (à environ 600 pieds, mesuré en ligne directe) Ewington Academy (à environ 4,8 miles) Morgan's Raid (à environ 6,9 miles) Bridge Loft / Maison de recharge (à environ 10 km) Charbon de bois (à environ 11 km) Matières premières (à environ 11 km) Calcaire (à environ 12 km). Touchez pour une liste et une carte de tous les marqueurs à Wilkesville.

Regarde aussi . . . Le raid de Morgan. (Soumis le 21 février 2012, par William Fischer, Jr. de Scranton, Pennsylvanie.)


L'invasion de l'Indiana : le raid de Morgan et la bataille de Corydon


Le raid de Morgan a été l'une des rares batailles de la guerre civile livrées dans le nord et reste la dernière bataille à avoir été livrée à l'intérieur des frontières de l'Indiana.

Au milieu de la guerre de Sécession, ce qui a commencé comme une petite incursion de diversion dans le Nord par l'armée confédérée pendant la campagne de Tullahomma, est devenu une invasion à part entière du Sud qui s'est étendue sur mille milles de l'Union.

Commençant au Tennessee et traversant le Kentucky, l'Indiana et l'Ohio, cette célèbre incursion est devenue simplement connue sous le nom de Morgan's Raid.

Le 8 juillet 1863, le bruit des obus explosant remplit l'air, alors que les troupes du général confédéré John Hunt Morgan traversaient la rivière Ohio près de la petite ville de Mauckport, dans l'Indiana.

Auparavant, Morgan avait déployé un espion, Thomas Hines, pour découvrir si le sentiment de Hoosier serait en quelque sorte sympathique aux confédérés. Il a trouvé peu de soutien pour les Sudistes et a été contraint de fuir vers le Kentucky lorsqu'il a été découvert qu'il était un intrus.

Volant deux bateaux à vapeur, le J.T McCombs et le Alice Doyen, sur la rive du Kentucky, la cavalerie a échappé aux tirs d'artillerie inexpérimentés de la garde nationale de l'Indiana, les envoyant se précipiter sous un lourd barrage de tirs d'artillerie. Au total, il a fallu 17 heures à toutes les troupes de Morgan pour traverser avec succès la rivière.

Sans se laisser décourager par l'escarmouche et les ordres confédérés clairs de rester en arrière, Morgan a continué à pousser ses forces vers le nord-ouest, atteignant Corydon, l'ancienne capitale de l'Indiana jusqu'en 1825, le lendemain. A quelques kilomètres de la ville, le général a été accosté par 400 volontaires de l'Union enthousiastes mais inexpérimentés, qui avaient été organisés à la hâte par le gouverneur Oliver Morton, un fervent partisan de la cause de l'Union.

Les vaillants efforts de la ville pour se défendre ont pris fin brutalement lorsque les troupes de Morgan ont tiré deux coups de semonce qui ont fait 15 victimes Corydon. Réalisant immédiatement la situation désespérée de protéger la ville contre 2 500 cavaliers qui avançaient, le colonel de l'Union Lewis Jordan a levé le drapeau blanc en signe de reddition pour éviter des pertes de vie inutiles.

La cavalerie confédérée, encouragée par sa victoire et les ordres de Morgan, se précipita dans la ville, pillant et rançonnant ce qu'elle pouvait trouver. En plus de quelques morts civils, les biens endommagés ou volés totalisaient près de l'équivalent de 500 000 $ en monnaie moderne, dont la plupart ont été remboursés par le gouvernement.

Bien que la bataille de Corydon elle-même ait été une victoire confédérée, le raid de Morgan s'est terminé par la capture et la mort de Morgan. Ce fut l'une des rares batailles de la guerre civile livrées dans le Nord et reste la dernière bataille à avoir été livrée à l'intérieur des frontières de l'Indiana.

Morgan's Raid a été commémoré par le John Hunt Morgan Heritage Trail. S'étendant à travers le Kentucky et l'Indiana, il permet aux visiteurs de suivre eux-mêmes le parcours historique du raid de Morgan. Les vrais aventuriers choisissent parfois de participer à la reconstitution annuelle de la bataille, un week-end complet avec le thé des dames et le bal militaire.


John Hunt Morgan

Le commandant de cavalerie confédérée John Hunt Morgan est né à Huntsville, en Alabama, le 1er juin 1825. Formé à l'Université de Transylvanie, il a combattu pendant la guerre du Mexique en tant que premier lieutenant dans les Kentucky Mounted Volunteers et a participé à la bataille de Buena Vista. Morgan a épousé Rebecca Bruce en 1848. Travaillant comme fabricant de chanvre à Lexington, Morgan est devenu un maçon et un leader communautaire actif, siégeant au conseil scolaire et au conseil municipal et en tant que capitaine du service d'incendie.

De 1852 à 1854, il a servi comme capitaine d'une compagnie d'artillerie dans la milice de l'État. En 1857, il a formé les Lexington Rifles et a attaché l'unité à la milice de la garde de l'État en 1860. Morgan a initialement soutenu la neutralité du Kentucky, mais en septembre 1861, de sa propre autorité, il a dirigé les Lexington Rifles dans une série de raids de guérilla avant de rejoindre officiellement le Confédération comme capitaine de cavalerie en octobre 1861.

En avril 1862, Morgan a été promu colonel et a poursuivi ses activités de raid, gagnant le sobriquet de "Francis Marion of the War". Il a dirigé un escadron à la bataille de Shiloh. Lors d'un raid de Knoxville à Cynthiana, Kentucky, du 4 au 28 juillet 1862, il recruta trois cents volontaires pour la cause confédérée. Le 12 août 1862, Morgan réussit à perturber la campagne du général Don Carlos Buell contre Chattanooga en brûlant les tunnels jumeaux de Louisville et de Nashville Railroad près de Gallatin, qui étaient des maillons essentiels de la ligne d'approvisionnement de l'Union. Embarrassé par cette perte, Buell envoya toute sa force de cavalerie contre Morgan et subit une déroute, y compris la capture du général Richard Johnson. Le succès de Morgan a enhardi les plans confédérés pour une invasion du Kentucky, et la cavalerie de Morgan a rejoint le général Braxton Bragg dans la campagne de Perryville. Le 7 décembre 1862, Morgan capture une garnison de 1 834 soldats de l'Union à Hartsville, Tennessee.

À Murfreesboro, le 14 décembre 1862, Morgan, veuf depuis 1861, a épousé Martha, dix-sept ans, Mattie Ready dans ce qui a été le point culminant de la saison sociale hivernale de la ville. La plupart du haut commandement confédéré a assisté à la cérémonie, qui a été réalisée par le lieutenant général (et évêque) Leonidas Polk. Ce mariage a produit une fille, Johnnie, qui est née après la mort de Morgan. Deux semaines après le mariage, les troupes de Morgan ont participé à des raids pendant la bataille de Stones River, détournant les troupes de l'Union d'aider l'armée du général William S. Rosecrans.

Au cours de ses raids, Morgan évitait souvent le combat direct grâce à des plans tactiques impliquant la ruse et la tromperie, notamment l'interception de messages télégraphiques et l'envoi de faux aux commandements de l'Union. En 1862, son commandement passa de 325 à une division de 3 900 et il fut promu brigadier général le 11 décembre 1862.

Au début de 1863, alors que la cavalerie de l'Union sur le théâtre occidental gagnait en compétence et en force, Morgan commença à subir des pertes lors de ses affrontements. Pour tenter de récupérer le prestige et le moral perdus, il s'est lancé dans son légendaire "Grand Raid". Morgan a mené ses troupes lors d'un raid non autorisé à travers le Kentucky, l'Indiana et l'Ohio. Au cours du raid, qui dura du 1er au 26 juillet 1863, Morgan sema la panique dans chaque ville successive qu'il approchait, rencontrant des milices convoquées à la hâte qui offraient une résistance relativement faible. En passant par le sud de l'Indiana, il a traversé l'Ohio à Harrison et s'est déplacé à moins de sept milles de Cincinnati. Capturé avec la majeure partie de son commandement à West Point, dans l'Ohio, Morgan s'évade du pénitencier de l'État de l'Ohio le 27 novembre 1863 et retourne dans le Kentucky. Son "Grand Raid" était l'incursion la plus septentrionale des troupes confédérées occidentales et a servi à renforcer le moral du Sud après la défaite de Lee à Gettysburg. Il a également servi à garantir le statut légendaire de Morgan parmi les généraux de la guerre civile.

Malgré la colère du haut commandement confédéré contre son raid impétueux et non autorisé, il a été rétabli au commandement. Des rapports faisant état de pillages par des hommes de Morgan lors d'un raid infructueux près de Cynthiana, Kentucky, en juin 1864, ont conduit à sa suspension de commandement et à la programmation d'une cour d'enquête pour le 10 septembre. Morgan a été surpris par des soldats fédéraux à Greeneville, Tennessee, le le 4 septembre et mourut en tentant de s'échapper. Initialement enterré à Richmond, Virginie, son corps a été déplacé à Lexington, Kentucky, en 1868.


Raid de Morgan pendant la guerre civile

Connu comme le "coup de foudre de la Confédération" et connu comme l'idéal du romantique cavalier sudiste, le général John Hunt Morgan.

Avec l'aimable autorisation de Jordan Pickens

Morgan’s Raiders, de “Harper’s Pictorial History of the Civil War”

Avec l'aimable autorisation de Jordan Pickens

Une carte de la route des raids de Morgan.

Avec l'aimable autorisation de Jordan Pickens

USS Fairplay 1862-1865, Tinclad #17

Avec l'aimable autorisation de Jordan Pickens

L'avis de recherche du général Morgan après s'être évadé du pénitencier de l'Ohio.

Avec l'aimable autorisation de Jordan Pickens

Le 2 juillet 1863 marqua le début du raid du général confédéré John Hunt Morgan de plus de 1 000 milles à Sparta, dans le Tennessee. Connu sous le nom de ‘Thunderbolt of the Confederacy’ et rappelé comme l'idéal du romantique cavalier sudiste, Morgan a ensuite traversé le Kentucky, à l'époque était un “état frontalier” en raison de faire toujours partie de l'Union mais permettant l'esclavage. Le général confédéré Braxton Bragg, le commandant régional, destiné aux cavaliers Morgan&# 8217s pour fournir une distraction en entrant dans le Kentucky. Morgan, cependant, confia à certains de ses officiers qu'il désirait depuis longtemps envahir l'Indiana et l'Ohio pour apporter la terreur de la guerre dans le Nord.

Bragg lui avait donné carte blanche, ou la liberté totale d'agir comme il l'entendait, pour parcourir le Tennessee et le Kentucky, mais lui avait ordonné de ne traverser en aucun cas la rivière Ohio. Morgan a néanmoins traversé l'Ohio à Brandenburg, Kentucky, dans l'Indiana, puis a traversé la frontière Ohio-Indiana à Harrison, Ohio, le 13 juillet. De là, il a contourné Cincinnati pour atteindre Williamsburg, Ohio, dans la partie orientale du comté de Clermont. Il a ensuite chargé à Washington Court House, à travers les comtés de Ross, Pike, Jackson et Vinton, et dans le comté de Meigs.

Selon Edgar Ervin's Pioneer History of Meigs County,

Le raid de Morgan dans le comté de Meigs est important car c'était la limite nord que toute armée du sud, ou un fragment de celle-ci, atteignait au combat. Il était étonnant qu'un chef audacieux tel qu'il puisse aller si loin, pourtant d'un point de vue militaire, accomplisse si peu par son raid. Cela a donné au comté de Meigs une conscience de guerre que je n'avais jamais connue auparavant. Il a profité des conditions et a chronométré son raid à un moment où certaines parties de la rivière Ohio dans le comté de Meigs pouvaient être traversées à cheval. Si son raid avait eu lieu 60 jours plus tôt ou 60 jours plus tard, la rivière Ohio aurait été plus un obstacle pour lui.

Avant le début de l'expédition, Morgan avait envoyé des espions le long de l'Ohio pour découvrir les gués ou les endroits les plus faciles à traverser. L'un des meilleurs se trouvait à Buffington Island, à environ 30 milles au-dessus de Pomeroy et à peu près à la même distance au-dessous de Parkersburg, ou peut-être un peu plus loin. C'est alors devenu le point objectif de Morgan. Après avoir quitté Williamsburg, Morgan a divisé ses forces, le colonel Richard Morgan (son frère), se dirigeant vers le sud-ouest et passant par Georgetown, le siège du comté de Brown, et le général John Hunt Morgan avec sa colonne a marché dans la direction nord-est jusqu'à Palais de justice de Washington. De là, tournant vers le sud-est, il traversa le comté de Ross, laissant Chillicothe à sa gauche, où attendaient une force assez considérable de miliciens. Traversant Piketon dans le comté de Pike et Jackson dans le comté de Jackson, volant des chevaux et des fournitures en cours de route.

Le général John Hunt Morgan était un franc-maçon. En 1846, Morgan est devenu maçon au Daviess Lodge #22 à Lexington, Kentucky. Alors qu'ils pillaient la ville de Jackson, certains de ses hommes auraient saccagé et pillé des objets du Trowel Lodge #132 à Jackson, notamment l'épée de Tyler. Morgan aurait réprimandé les hommes et leur aurait ordonné de rapporter l'attirail volé au temple maçonnique. De là, Morgan se rendit à Vinton dans le comté de Gallia, puis à Wilkesville, puis fit son entrée dans le comté de Meigs.

La réponse de l'Union ne s'est pas fait attendre, car le major général Ambrose Burnside, commandant le département de l'Ohio, a ordonné le départ de toutes les troupes disponibles, ainsi que l'envoi de plusieurs canonnières de la marine de l'Union remontant la rivière Ohio pour contester toute tentative confédérée d'atteindre le Kentucky ou Virginie-Occidentale et sécurité. Brick. Le général Edward H. Hobson mena plusieurs colonnes de cavalerie fédérale à la poursuite des raiders Morgan, qui étaient désormais réduits à quelque 1 700 hommes. Le gouverneur de l'Ohio, David Tod, a appelé la milice locale et des volontaires ont formé des compagnies pour protéger les villes et les traversées de rivières dans toute la région.

Le 18 juillet, Morgan, après avoir divisé sa colonne plus tôt, mena sa force réunie vers Pomeroy, où Morgan avait l'intention de traverser en Virginie-Occidentale. Exécutant un gant de tirs d'armes légères, les hommes de Morgan se sont vu refuser l'accès à la rivière et à Pomeroy elle-même par une milice locale.

Selon Ervin's Pioneer History of Meigs County,

La milice locale devant lui commençait à abattre des arbres et à déchirer des ponts pour entraver la progression de Morgan. Près de Pomeroy, ils ont pris position. Pendant quatre ou cinq milles, sa route traversait un ravin, avec des intersections occasionnelles avec des routes de colline. À tous ces passages, il trouva une milice locale postée, et des collines au-dessus de lui, ils firent de son passage à travers le ravin une course parfaite du gant. On front, flank and rear the militia pressed and closed eagerly upon his track.

It was fortune that two of the Middleport companies of Ohio National Guard – one of infantry commanded by Captain RB Wilson, Lieutenants OP Skinner and Samuel Grant the other of artillery, Captain John Schreiner, the two numbering about 120 men – to render service so valuable that it should find a place in history. With other organizations these companies were ordered to rendezvous at Marietta.

On the very night of their arrival in camp came tidings of the enemy’s approach to their own town and they at once asked for orders to return to the defense of their homes. With but a little delay they were put aboard a steamer, and by daylight the following morning had disembarked and were several miles out on the roads by which Morgan was approaching.

William Grant, George Womeldorff and James Waddell, three of the most reliable men of the command, “were directed to find a point well up the road from which they could observe the approach and estimate the number of the enemy, and by an agreed signal advised headquarters of the fax ascertains.” The “artillery” consisted of an old gun that had been used for celebrating the Fourth of July, which, loaded with spikes and pieces of chain “commanded” for several hundred yards a straight piece of road flanked on one side by timber where part of [the Meigs County] men were concealed and on the other side by a creek with steep banks. Scarcely had the dispositions been made when the enemy appeared. William Grant and his comrades, assisted by the darkness, avoided the approaching raiders, who, a few moments later, ran up on the picket commanded by Lieutenant Samuel Grant and surrendered without much resistance. They were marched to Pomeroy and placed under guard in the courthouse to be turned over as prisoners of war, 68 enlisted men and seven officers.

From The History of Meigs and Gallia Counties, published by the Union Publishing Company,

… The show of resistance was enough to turn him aside and he moved off of the river towards Buffington Island.

At Chester, he resisted for an hour and a half and hunted for a guide. That stop though so short was fatal for it was 8 o’clock when he had reached the ford, too late and dark to undertake to cross. And he persisted right on after arriving at Chester that to him most precious hour and a half would no doubt have seen him safely on the Virginia side. Tired and worn out, both men and horses, he decided to rest for the night on the north bank of the Ohio. The handful of men who had thrown up works near the riverbank and attempted to impede his progress, might then have been easily brushed aside. But the dawn of another morning brought him more formidable enemy and the person of general Judah with his regulars who had arrived in the night by a boat, fresh and ready for the conflict.

Here is the description of the movements as given by Whitelaw Reid in his Ohio in The War, that refer to the stop at Chester.

But [Morgan’s] evil genius was upon him. He had lost an hour and a half at Chester in the afternoon – the most precious hour and a half since his horse’s feet touched Northern soil: and he now decided to waste the night.

In the hurried counsel with his exhausted officers it was admitted on all hands that Judah had arrived – but some of his troops had probably given force to the skirmishing near Pomeroy – that they would certainly be at Buffington by morning and that gunboats would accompany them. But his men were in bad condition and he feared to trash them in the night attack upon a fortified position which she had not reconnoitered. The fear was fatal.

Even yet, by abandoning his wagon trains and his wounded he might have reached unguarded forwards a little higher up. This too, was mentioned by Morgan‘s officers. He would save all he promptly replied or lose altogether. And so he gave mortgages to fate. By morning Judah was up.

Information reached Captain Wilson that one detachment would undertake to cross the Ohio as a show place several miles above Pomeroy, and reinforced by about 20 men, under Daniel Davis of Pomeroy, he immediately marched up to intercept the fugitive, reaching the point late in the evening.

At daybreak Duke advanced with a couple of rebel regiments to storm the earth work, but found it abandoned. He was rapidly proceeding to make dispositions for crossing when Judah’s advance struck him. At first he repulsed it and took a number of prisoners, the adjutant general of Judah’s staff among them. Morgan then ordered him to hold the force on his front and check. He was not able to return to his command until it had been broken and thrown into fall retreat before and impetuous charge of Judah’s cavalry, headed by Lieutenant O’Neal of Fifth Indiana. He succeeded in rallying then reforming his line. But now, advancing up the Chester and Pomeroy Road, came the gallant cavalry that over three states had been galloping on their tract – the 3000 of Hobson’s command – who for now two weeks had been only a day, a forenoon, an hour behind them.

As Hobson’s guidons fluttered out in the little valley by the riverbank where they fought, every man of that band that had so long defied 100,000 knew that the contest was over. They were almost out of ammunition, exhausted and scarcely 2000 strong. Against them were Hobson’s 3000 and Judah’s still larger force. To complete the overwhelming odds that, in spite of their efforts, had at last been concentrated upon them, the tin-clad gun boats steamed up an open fire.

Morgan comprehended the situation as readily as a hard riding troopers, who, still clinging to their bolts of calico, we’re already beginning to gallop towards the rear. He at once essayed to extricate his trains and then to withdraw his regiments by column of fours from right of companies, keeping up meanwhile, as sturdy resistance as he might. For some distance the withdrawal was made in tolerable order then under a charge of a Michigan cavalry regiment, everything was broken, and the retreat became a rout. Morgan with not quite 1200 man escaped. His brother with Colonels Duke, Ward, Huffman and about 700 men were taken prisoner.

This was the battle of Buffington Island. It was brief and decisive. But for his two grave mistakes of the night before, Morgan might have avoided it and escaped, and many a thrilling tale of the events that happened in the following seven days and nights of the raid would never have been told,… But it cannot be said he yielded to blow that insured his fate without resistance, and the courage and tenacity worthy of a better cause. The superiority in forces was overwhelming and the Union losses small. The boats carried the prisoners back to Cincinnati and the troops, with a little rest, pushed on after Morgan and the 1,200 men who had escaped.

About 15 or 20 miles above Buffington Island he again attempted to cross and succeeded in landing 1/4 of his men on Virginia soil. Morgan himself was in the middle of the Ohio River but the gunboats were to close upon him and he was forced back to the Ohio side with his remaining 900 men. Again, his hurried flight was taken up. Almost insurmountable difficulties surrounded him. His men were exhausted from long, forced marches and enormous work. Their pillaging had greatly demoralized them. The blow of defeat was severe causing a lack of faith in themselves and a loss of confidence in their intrepid commander. They were harassed on every hand. Every loophole of escape shut off hunted like game, day or night.

Yet to the very last the energy of this during cavalryman worthy of admiration of all – even his enemies. With no apparent possibility of escape at Buffington Island he slipped away from Judah and Hobson with more than half of his forces.

After Belleville, he headed almost west and went far as MacArthur. His course then ran back to Blennerhassett Island, thence through Athens, eastern Hocking and Perry Counties and into Morgan County near Porterville on July 22, 1863. He then continued through Muskingum County, Noble, Guernsey, Carroll, Harrison, Jefferson and Columbiana Counties where he was captured at Salineville, near Steubenville. He was then confined to the Ohio penitentiary several months until his escape November 27, through Cincinnati, Kentucky and Tennessee to Richmond, Virginia. He was killed in 1864 in a skirmish in East Tennessee.

Known as the “Thunderbolt of the Confederacy” and remembered as the ideal of the romantic Southern cavalryman, general John Hunt Morgan.


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About Brig. General John Hunt Morgan (CSA)

Confederate cavalry commander John Hunt Morgan was born in Huntsville, Alabama, on June 1, 1825. Educated at Transylvania University, he fought in the Mexican War as a first lieutenant in the Kentucky Mounted Volunteers and saw action at the battle of Buena Vista. Morgan married Rebecca Bruce in 1848. Working as a hemp manufacturer in Lexington, Morgan became a Mason and an active community leader, serving on the school board and city council and as captain of the fire department.

From 1852 to 1854 he served as captain of an artillery company in the state militia. In 1857 he formed the Lexington Rifles and attached the unit to the state guard militia in 1860. Morgan initially supported Kentucky neutrality, but in September 1861, on his own authority, he led the Lexington Rifles in a series of guerrilla raids before officially joining the Confederacy as a captain of cavalry in October 1861.

In April 1862 Morgan was promoted to colonel and continued his raiding activities, earning the sobriquet 𠇏rancis Marion of the War.” He led a squadron at the battle of Shiloh. On a raid from Knoxville to Cynthiana, Kentucky, from July 4-28, 1862, he recruited three hundred volunteers for the Confederate cause. On August 12, 1862, Morgan successfully disrupted General Don Carlos Buell’s campaign against Chattanooga by burning the twin Louisville and Nashville Railroad tunnels near Gallatin, which were vital links in the Union supply line. Embarrassed by this loss, Buell sent his entire cavalry force against Morgan and suffered a rout, including the capture of General Richard Johnson. Morgan’s success emboldened Confederate plans for a Kentucky invasion, and Morgan’s cavalry joined General Braxton Bragg in the Perryville campaign. On December 7, 1862, Morgan captured a garrison of 1,834 Union troops at Hartsville, Tennessee.

In Murfreesboro, on December 14, 1862, Morgan, widowed since 1861, married seventeen-year-old Martha “Mattie” Ready in what was the highlight of the city’s winter social season. Most of the Confederate high command attended the ceremony, which was performed by Lieutenant General (and Bishop) Leonidas Polk. This marriage produced a daughter, Johnnie, who was born after Morgan’s death. Two weeks after the wedding, Morgan’s troops participated in raids during the battle of Stones River, diverting Union troops from assisting General William S. Rosecrans’s army.

During his raids, Morgan often avoided direct combat through tactical plans which involved ruse and deception, including intercepting telegraph messages and sending out false ones to Union commands. During 1862 his command grew from 325 to a division of 3,900 and he was promoted to brigadier general on December 11, 1862.

In early 1863, as Union cavalry in the western theater gained proficiency and strength, Morgan began suffering losses in his confrontations. In an attempt to recoup some lost prestige and morale, he embarked on his legendary “Great Raid.” Morgan led his troops on an unauthorized raid through Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio. During the raid, which lasted from July 1 to 26, 1863, Morgan spread panic in each successive town he approached, encountering hastily convened militia who offered relatively weak resistance. Passing through southern Indiana, he crossed into Ohio at Harrison, and moved within seven miles of Cincinnati. Captured with most of his command at West Point, Ohio, Morgan escaped from the Ohio State Penitentiary on November 27, 1863, and returned to Kentucky. His “Great Raid” was the northernmost incursion of western Confederate troops and served to bolster Southern morale after Lee’s defeat at Gettysburg. It also served to secure Morgan’s legendary status among Civil War generals.

Despite the Confederate high command’s anger at his unauthorized, impetuous raid, he was restored to command. Reports of looting by Morgan’s men during an unsuccessful raid near Cynthiana, Kentucky, in June 1864 led to his suspension from command and the scheduling of a court of inquiry for September 10. Morgan was surprised by Federal soldiers in Greeneville, Tennessee, on September 4, and died attempting to escape. Originally buried in Richmond, Virginia, his body was moved to Lexington, Kentucky, in 1868.

John Hunt Morgan was born Wednesday, June 1, 1825, at 310 South Green Street in Huntsville, Alabama. In 1831, his father, Calvin, lost his Alabama home because he couldn?t pay the taxes. He accepted his father-in-law?s offer to move to Lexington, Kentucky, and manage one of the Hunt farms in Fayette County. Their family moved into a two-story farmhouse on Tates Creek Road. John Morgan was six years old when they relocated to Kentucky.

At age seventeen, John enrolled at Transylvania College in Lexington in 1842 and joined the Adelphi Society, a literary fraternity. In June of 1844, he had a duel with a fraternity brother. Neither was seriously hurt. Following this incident on July 4, 1844, the college?s Board of Trustees expelled him from the school.

He was married twice. First to Rebecca Gratz Bruce of Lexington (1830-1861) was eighteen-years-old when she was married November 21, 1848 to John, twenty-three. In September 1853, she had a stillborn son. As an aftereffect of her pregnancy, Rebecca developed a blood clot in her leg.

After eight years of suffering, she died an invalid and childless at age thirty-one. John would be a widower for two years before he met and married his second wife, Martha "Mattie" Ready of Murfreesboro, Tennessee (1840-1887). She was twenty-two when she married John who was then thirty-seven. Ils ont eu deux filles. The first was born November 27, 1863, and lived only one day. Their second, Johnnie, was born April 7, 1865, following John?s death.

His grandfather, John Wesley Hunt, was an early founder of Lexington and one of the wealthiest men west of the Allegheny Mountains. It is said that he was Lexington?s first millionaire. He had significant investments in merchandising, manufacturing, banking and government securities

John Morgan stood arrow-straight at six feet tall, weighed 185 pounds. He had curly sandy hair and gray eyes. Early in the Civil War, Carrie Pyncheon of Huntsville wrote in her diary, "Before the town was occupied by the Yankees, I spent an evening with Captain Jack [John] Morgan, our second Marion. He was so mild and gentle in his manners that I would not have taken him for a soldier but for his boots and spurs, so unwarrior-like did he seem."

As the war began, he was elected captain of the Morgan Squadron, which formed the nucleus of the 2nd KY cavalry. By the end of 1862, he rose through the ranks and was a brigadier general at the time of the Ohio-Indiana raid.

To the South, he was one of their greatest, their Robin Hood. Northern newspapers called him "The King of Horse Thieves, a bandit, a freebooter, no better than a thug." In the South, he was admired as the "Thunderbolt of the Confederacy."

"I want to be a cavalryman And with John Hunt Morgan ride, A colt revolver in my belt A saber by my side. I want a pair of epaulets to match my suit of gray, The uniform my mother made  And lettered 'CSA'. "

Family Data Collection - Births

American Civil War General Officers

Highest Rank: Brigadier General

Birth Place: Huntsville, Alabama

Promotions: Promoted to Full Colonel (2nd KY Cav)

Biography: Brigadier-General John Hunt Morgan

Brigadier-General John Hunt Morgan was born at Huntsville,

Ala., June 1, 1825, but was reared in Kentucky from the age of

four years, upon the farm near Lexington to which his parents

removed. He was the eldest of six brothers, of whom all bore

arms for the Confederacy. It is said that he was a lineal

descendant of Daniel Morgan, of Revolutionary fame.

His first military experience was at the time of the war with

Mexico, when he had the rank of lieutenant in Capt. O. P.

Beard's company, General Marshall's cavalry, and in later

years he was captain of the Lexington Rifles. Pendant le

period following the Mexican war he devoted himself with

On April 16, 1861, he telegraphed President Davis: "Twenty

thousand men can be raised to defend southern liberty against

northern conquest. Do you want them?" But he was not

encouraged to immediate action.

In September he was arrested by Home Guards while conveying

jeans cloth southward from his factory, and imprisoned for

three days and in the latter part of that month he joined the

Confederate forces at Bowling, mustered in November 5th.

He became a colonel in the summer of 1862, when he organized

the Second cavalry at Chattanooga. Then, in July, he won fame

by his first Kentucky raid. In August he covered the front of

Bragg's army concentrating at McMinnville, Tenn., with

victorious engagements at Gallatin and Hartsville.

During Bragg's occupation of Kentucky, part of his men

advanced to the Ohio river at Augusta. On October 18th, he

captured several hundred Federals at Lexington, after a severe

fight. On the return to Tennessee he was given command of a

cavalry brigade, composed of his own regiment and the Seventh,

Eighth, Ninth and Eleventh Kentucky cavalry.

On December 7th, he won a brilliant victory at Hartsville. Au

the 11th he was commissioned brigadier-general. Then followed

his "Christmas raid" in Kentucky, which, with his previous

exploits, elicited a resolution of thanks from Congress.

His cavalry division was now formed, the First brigade

including the Second, Fifth, Sixth and Ninth Kentucky and

Ninth Tennessee regiments the Second brigade, the Third,

Eighth, Eleventh and Tenth Kentucky. Taking position on the

right of Bragg's army in middle Tennessee, he fought the enemy

at Vaught's Hill, Milton, Liberty, and Snow's Hill, March 19th

to April 3rd, and on May 10th defeated the Federals in

southeast Kentucky, at the battle of Greasy Creek.

On June 27th, as Rosecrans advanced to force Bragg from

Tennessee, General Morgan started out from Sparta, to draw off

the Federal strength by an invasion of the Northwest. Ce

happened that his heaviest fighting was in Kentucky.

Colonel Chenault, Major Brent, and many other brave men fell

at Green River bridge, July 4th, and at Lebanon young Thomas

After a circuit through Indiana and Ohio around Cincinnati, he

attempted to recross the Ohio river at Buffington island, July

19th. But after a spirited battle, Colonel Duke and part of

his command were captured, and Morgan, with the remainder,

forced to continue eastward.

On the 26th, Colonels Grigsby and Johnson, with 300 or 400

men, forded the river, and Morgan himself was halfway across

when he saw that most of his men must be captured, and

returned to share their fate.

He and his officers were treated rather as criminals than

military prisoners, and confined, with the usual indignities,

in the Ohio State prison. But before the end of the year he

had escaped with six companions, and passed through Kentucky

and Tennessee to the Confederate lines.

In January, 1864, he was given authority to reorganize his

command, and in the following month, at his own request, was

ordered from Decatur, GA, to Abingdon, Va. There he had the

duty of defending the salt works and lead mines, soon

threatened by formidable columns under Crook and Burbridge.

He checked Crook at Wytheville in May, and then made a raid in

Kentucky to compel the retreat of Burbridge. On June 8th he

took Mt. Sterling and 400 men, and on the 11th captured

General Hobson and 1,800 men at Cynthiana.

But Burbridge was in close pursuit, and Morgan was badly

defeated on the 12th. Overwhelmed by misfortune, he yet

demonstrated his great nature by renewed efforts to defend his

The enemy having penetrated Bull's Gap in August, he was

advancing on that post with about 1,000 men when attacked at

Greeneville, Tenn., at daylight, September 4th, by Gillem's

cavalerie. While escaping from the house in which he had passed

the night, he was shot and killed. His body, shamefully

treated at the time, was afterward interred with honor in the

Source: Confederate Military History, vol. XI, p. 245

John Hunt Morgan was born in Huntsville, Alabama, the eldest of ten children of Calvin and Henrietta (Hunt) Morgan. He was an uncle of geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan and a grandson of John Wesley Hunt, an early founder of Lexington, Kentucky, and one of the first millionaires west of the Allegheny Mountains. He was also the brother-in-law of A.P. Hill and of Basil W. Duke.[2]

Morgan's father lost his Huntsville home in 1831 when he was unable to pay the property taxes following the failure of his pharmacy. The family then moved to Lexington, where Calvin Morgan would manage one of Hunt's sprawling farms. Morgan also attended Transylvania College for two years, but was suspended in June 1844 for dueling with a fraternity brother. In 1846, Morgan joined the Freemasons, as had his father before him.

In 1846 Morgan enlisted in the U.S. Army as a cavalry private during the Mexican-American War, and saw combat at the Battle of Buena Vista. On his return to Kentucky, he became a hemp manufacturer and eventually took over his grandfather's prosperous mercantile business. In 1848, he married Rebecca Gratz Bruce, 18-year-old sister of Morgan's business partner. Morgan raised a militia artillery company in 1852, but it was disbanded two years later.

In 1853, Morgan's wife delivered a stillborn son. Rebecca Morgan contracted septic thrombophlebitis, an infection of a blood clot in a vein, which eventually led to an amputation. Relations with his wife's family suffered over different views on slavery and with her health problems. In 1857, Morgan raised an independent infantry company known as the "Lexington Rifles," and spent much of his free time drilling them.

John Hunt Morgan Memorial in downtown Lexington, Kentucky

Like most Kentuckians, Morgan did not initially support secession. Immediately after Lincoln's election in November 1860, he wrote to his brother, Thomas Hunt Morgan, then a student at Kenyon College in northern Ohio, "Our State will not I hope secede[.] have no doubt but Lincoln will make a good President at least we ought to give him a fair trial & then if he commits some overt act all the South will be a unit." By the following spring, Tom Morgan (who also had opposed Kentucky's secession) had transferred home to the Kentucky Military Institute and there began to support the Confederacy. Just before the fourth of July, he quietly left for Camp Boone, just across the Tennessee border, by way a steamer from Louisville to enlist in the Kentucky State Guard. John stayed at home in Lexington to tend to his troubled business and his ailing wife. Becky Morgan finally died on July 21, 1861. In September, Captain Morgan and his militia company went to Tennessee and joined the Confederate States Army. Morgan soon raised the 2nd Kentucky Cavalry Regiment and became its colonel on April 4, 1861.[2]

Morgan and his cavalrymen fought at the Battle of Shiloh in May 1862, and he soon became a symbol to secessionists in their hopes for obtaining Kentucky for the Confederacy. A Louisiana writer, Robert D. Patrick, compared Morgan to Francis Marion and wrote that "a few thousands of such men as his would regain us Kentucky and Tennessee." In his first Kentucky raid, Morgan left Knoxville on July 4, 1862, with almost 900 men and in three weeks he swept through Kentucky, deep in the rear of Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell's army. He reported the capture of 1,200 Federal soldiers, whom he paroled, acquired several hundred horses, and destroyed massive quantities of supplies. He unnerved Kentucky's Union military government and President Abraham Lincoln received so many frantic appeals for help that he complained that "they are having a stampede in Kentucky." Historian Kenneth M. Noe wrote that Morgan's feat "in many ways surpassed J.E.B. Stuart's celebrated 'Ride around McClellan' and the Army of the Potomac the previous spring." The success of Morgan's raid was one of the key reasons that the Confederate Heartland Offensive of Braxton Bragg and Edmund Kirby Smith was launched later that fall, assuming that tens of thousands of Kentuckians would enlist in the Confederate Army if they invaded the state.[3]

Morgan was promoted to brigadier general (his highest rank) on December 11, 1862.[2] He received the thanks of the Confederate Congress on May 1, 1863 for his raids on the supply lines of Union Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans in December and January, most notably his victory at the Battle of Hartsville on December 7.[4] Also in December, Morgan married Martha "Mattie" Ready, the daughter of Tennessee United States Representative Charles Ready and a cousin of William T. Haskell, another former U.S. representative from Tennessee.

Hoping to divert Union troops and resources in conjunction with the twin Confederate operations of Vicksburg and the Gettysburg in the summer of 1863, Morgan set off on the campaign that would become known as "Morgan's Raid". Morgan crossed the Ohio River, and raided across southern Indiana and Ohio. After many skirmishes and battles, during which he captured and paroled thousands of Union soldiers[citation needed], Morgan's raid almost ended on July 19, 1863, at Buffington Island, Ohio, when approximately 700 of his men were captured while trying to cross the Ohio River into West Virginia. (Intercepted by Union gunboats, less than 200 of his men succeeded in crossing.) Most of Morgan's men captured that day spent the rest of the war in the infamous Camp Douglas Prisoner of War camp in Chicago, which had a very high death rate. On July 26, near Salineville, Ohio (actually closer to New Lisbon-now called just Lisbon), Morgan and his exhausted, hungry and saddlesore soldiers were finally forced to surrender.

On November 27, Morgan and six of his officers, most notably Thomas Hines, escaped from their cells in the Ohio Penitentiary by digging a tunnel from Hines' cell into the inner yard and then ascending a wall with a rope made from bunk coverlets and a bent poker iron. Morgan and three of his officers, shortly after midnight, boarded a train from the nearby Columbus train station and arrived in Cincinnati that morning. Morgan and Hines jumped from the train before reaching the depot, and escaped into Kentucky by hiring a skiff to take them across the Ohio River. Through the assistance of sympathizers, they eventually made it to safety in the South. Coincidentally, the same day Morgan escaped, his wife gave birth to a daughter, who died shortly afterwards before Morgan returned home.

Though Morgan's Raid was breathlessly followed by the Northern and Southern press and caused the Union leadership considerable concern, it is now regarded as little more than a showy but ultimately futile sidelight to the war. Furthermore, it was done in direct violation of his orders from Gen. Braxton Bragg not to cross the river. Despite the Raiders' best efforts, Union forces had amassed nearly 110,000 Union militia in Illinois, Indiana and Ohio dozens of United States Navy gunboats along the Ohio and strong Federal cavalry forces, which doomed the raid from the beginning. The cost of the raid to the Federals was extensive, with claims for compensation still being filed against the U.S. government well into the early 20th century. However, the Confederacy's irreplaceable loss of some of the finest light cavalry[citation needed]in American history far outweighed the Union's replaceable losses in equipment and supplies. When taken in together with the defeats at Vicksburg and Gettysburg, the loss of Morgan's cavalry brigade dealt another serious blow to Confederate morale.

[edit] Late career and death

After his return from Ohio, Morgan was never again trusted by General Bragg. On August 22, 1864, Morgan was placed in command of the Trans-Allegheny Department, embracing at the time the Confederate forces in eastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia.[5]

However the men he was assigned were in no way comparable to those he had lost. Morgan once again began raiding into Kentucky, but his men lacked discipline and he was either not willing or able to control them, leading to open pillaging as well as high casualties. By now Confederate authorities were quietly investigating Morgan for charges of criminal banditry[citation needed], likely leading to his removal from command. He began to organize a raid aimed at Knoxville, Tennessee.[1]

On September 4, 1864, he was surprised and killed while attempting to escape capture during a Union raid on Greeneville, Tennessee. His men always believed that he had been murdered to prevent a second escape from prison, but it seems he was simply shot because he refused to halt.

Morgan was buried in Lexington Cemetery. The burial was shortly before the birth of his second child, another daughter.

John Hunt Morgan (June 1, 1825 – September 4, 1864) was a Confederate general and cavalry officer in the American Civil War.

Morgan is best known for Morgan's Raid in 1863, when he led 2,460 troops racing past Union lines into Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio in July 1863. This would be the farthest north any uniformed Confederate troops penetrated during the war.

John Hunt Morgan was born in Huntsville, Alabama, the eldest of ten children of Calvin and Henrietta (Hunt) Morgan. He was an uncle of geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan and a grandson of John Wesley Hunt, an early founder of Lexington, Kentucky, and one of the first millionaires west of the Allegheny Mountains. He was also the brother-in-law of A.P. Hill and of Basil W. Duke.

In 1846, Morgan enlisted in the U.S. Army as a cavalry private during the Mexican-American War, and saw combat at the Battle of Buena Vista. On his return to Kentucky, he became a hemp manufacturer and eventually took over his grandfather's prosperous mercantile business. In 1848, he married Rebecca Gratz Bruce, 18-year-old sister of Morgan's business partner. Morgan raised a militia artillery company in 1852, but it was disbanded two years later.

Like most Kentuckians, Morgan did not initially support secession. Immediately after Lincoln's election in November 1860, he wrote to his brother, Thomas Hunt Morgan, then a student at Kenyon College in northern Ohio, "Our State will not I hope secede, I have no doubt but Lincoln will make a good President at least we ought to give him a fair trial & then if he commits some overt act all the South will be a unit." Neverthless, in September 1861, Captain Morgan and his militia company went to Tennessee and joined the Confederate States Army. Morgan soon raised the 2nd Kentucky Cavalry Regiment and became its colonel on April 4, 1862.

Morgan and his cavalrymen fought at the Battle of Shiloh in May 1862, and he soon became a symbol to secessionists in their hopes for obtaining Kentucky for the Confederacy. A Louisiana writer, Robert D. Patrick, compared Morgan to Francis Marion and wrote that "a few thousands of such men as his would regain us Kentucky and Tennessee." In his first Kentucky raid, Morgan left Knoxville on July 4, 1862, with almost 900 men and in three weeks he swept through Kentucky, deep in the rear of Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell's army. He reported the capture of 1,200 Federal soldiers, whom he paroled, acquired several hundred horses, and destroyed massive quantities of supplies. He unnerved Kentucky's Union military government and President Abraham Lincoln received so many frantic appeals for help that he complained that "they are having a stampede in Kentucky." Historian Kenneth M. Noe wrote that Morgan's feat "in many ways surpassed J.E.B. Stuart's celebrated 'Ride around McClellan' and the Army of the Potomac the previous spring." The success of Morgan's raid was one of the key reasons that the Confederate Heartland Offensive of Braxton Bragg and Edmund Kirby Smith was launched later that fall, assuming that tens of thousands of Kentuckians would enlist in the Confederate Army if they invaded the state.

Morgan was promoted to brigadier general (his highest rank) on December 11, 1862, though the Promotion Orders were not signed by President Davis until December 14, 1862. He received the thanks of the Confederate Congress on May 1, 1863 for his raids on the supply lines of Union Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans in December and January, most notably his victory at the Battle of Hartsville on December 7. Also on December 14, Morgan married Martha "Mattie" Ready, the daughter of Tennessee United States Representative Charles Ready and a cousin of William T. Haskell, another former U.S. representative from Tennessee.

Hoping to divert Union troops and resources in conjunction with the twin Confederate operations of Vicksburg and Gettysburg in the summer of 1863, Morgan set off on the campaign that would become known as "Morgan's Raid". Morgan crossed the Ohio River, and raided across southern Indiana and Ohio. At Corydon, Indiana the raiders met 450 local Home Guard in a battle that resulted in eleven Confederates killed and five Home Guard killed.

After several more skirmishes, during which he captured and paroled thousands of Union soldiers[citation needed], Morgan's raid almost ended on July 19, 1863, at Buffington Island, Ohio, when approximately 700 of his men were captured while trying to cross the Ohio River into West Virginia. (Intercepted by Union gunboats, less than 200 of his men succeeded in crossing.) Most of Morgan's men captured that day spent the rest of the war in the infamous Camp Douglas Prisoner of War camp in Chicago, which had a very high death rate. On July 26, near Salineville, Ohio (actually closer to New Lisbon-now called just Lisbon), Morgan and his exhausted, hungry and saddlesore soldiers were finally forced to surrender.

On November 27, Morgan and six of his officers, most notably Thomas Hines, escaped from their cells in the Ohio Penitentiary by digging a tunnel from Hines' cell into the inner yard and then ascending a wall with a rope made from bunk coverlets and a bent poker iron. Morgan and three of his officers, shortly after midnight, boarded a train from the nearby Columbus train station and arrived in Cincinnati that morning. Morgan and Hines jumped from the train before reaching the depot, and escaped into Kentucky by hiring a skiff to take them across the Ohio River. Through the assistance of sympathizers, they eventually made it to safety in the South. Coincidentally, the same day Morgan escaped, his wife gave birth to a daughter, who died shortly afterwards before Morgan returned home.

Though Morgan's Raid was breathlessly followed by the Northern and Southern press and caused the Union leadership considerable concern, it is now regarded as little more than a showy but ultimately futile sidelight to the war. Furthermore, it was done in direct violation of his orders from Gen. Braxton Bragg not to cross the river. Despite the Raiders' best efforts, Union forces had amassed nearly 110,000 Union militia in Illinois, Indiana and Ohio dozens of United States Navy gunboats along the Ohio and strong Federal cavalry forces, which doomed the raid from the beginning. The cost of the raid to the Federals was extensive, with claims for compensation still being filed against the U.S. government well into the early 20th century. However, the Confederacy's irreplaceable loss of some of the finest light cavalry[citation needed]in American history far outweighed the Union's replaceable losses in equipment and supplies. When taken in together with the defeats at Vicksburg and Gettysburg, the loss of Morgan's cavalry brigade dealt another serious blow to Confederate morale.

After his return from Ohio, Morgan was never again trusted by General Bragg. On August 22, 1864, Morgan was placed in command of the Trans-Allegheny Department, embracing at the time the Confederate forces in eastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia.

However the men he was assigned were in no way comparable to those he had lost. Morgan once again began raiding into Kentucky, but his men lacked discipline and he was either not willing or able to control them, leading to open pillaging as well as high casualties. By now Confederate authorities were quietly investigating Morgan for charges of criminal banditry, likely leading to his removal from command. He began to organize a raid aimed at Knoxville, Tennessee.

On September 4, 1864, he was surprised and killed while attempting to escape capture during a Union raid on Greeneville, Tennessee. His men always believed that he had been murdered to prevent a second escape from prison, but it seems he was simply shot because he refused to halt.

Morgan was buried in Lexington Cemetery. The burial was shortly before the birth of his second child, another daughter.

John Hunt Morgan, Brig. General (CSA) Birth: June 1, 1825 Huntsville, AL, USA Death: September 4, 1864 (39) Greenville, Green Co., TN

Son of Calvin Morgan and Henrietta Morgan Husband of Rebecca Bruce and Martha Ready

Father of Infant Morgan, Sidney Morgan, Johnny Morgan and Johnny Morgan Brother of Henrietta Duke, Charlton Hunt Morgan, Calvin Morgan, Richard Morgan, Thomas Morgan and 1 other, and Katherine Morgan « less Half brother of John Morgan, Gen., Henrietta Morgan, Calvin Morgan, Jr., Mary Morgan, Ann Morgan and 7 others, Catherine Morgan, Richard Morgan, Charlton Morgan, Thomas Morgan, Francis Morgan, Catherine Morgan and Eleanor Morgan « less

John Hunt Morgan was born Wednesday, June 1, 1825, at 310 South Green Street in Huntsville, Alabama. In 1831, his father, Calvin, lost his Alabama home because he couldn?t pay the taxes. He accepted his father-in-law?s offer to move to Lexington, Kentucky, and manage one of the Hunt farms in Fayette County. Their family moved into a two-story farmhouse on Tates Creek Road. John Morgan was six years old when they relocated to Kentucky.

At age seventeen, John enrolled at Transylvania College in Lexington in 1842 and joined the Adelphi Society, a literary fraternity. In June of 1844, he had a duel with a fraternity brother. Neither was seriously hurt. Following this incident on July 4, 1844, the college?s Board of Trustees expelled him from the school.

He was married twice. First to Rebecca Gratz Bruce of Lexington (1830-1861) was eighteen-years-old when she was married November 21, 1848 to John, twenty-three. In September 1853, she had a stillborn son. As an aftereffect of her p. read more

John Hunt Morgan was born Wednesday, June 1, 1825, at 310 South Green Street in Huntsville, Alabama. In 1831, his father, Calvin, lost his Alabama home because he couldn?t pay the taxes. He accepted his father-in-law?s offer to move to Lexington, Kentucky, and manage one of the Hunt farms in Fayette County. Their family moved into a two-story farmhouse on Tates Creek Road. John Morgan was six years old when they relocated to Kentucky.

At age seventeen, John enrolled at Transylvania College in Lexington in 1842 and joined the Adelphi Society, a literary fraternity. In June of 1844, he had a duel with a fraternity brother. Neither was seriously hurt. Following this incident on July 4, 1844, the college?s Board of Trustees expelled him from the school.

He was married twice. First to Rebecca Gratz Bruce of Lexington (1830-1861) was eighteen-years-old when she was married November 21, 1848 to John, twenty-three. In September 1853, she had a stillborn son. As an aftereffect of her pregnancy, Rebecca developed a blood clot in her leg.

After eight years of suffering, she died an invalid and childless at age thirty-one. John would be a widower for two years before he met and married his second wife, Martha "Mattie" Ready of Murfreesboro, Tennessee (1840-1887). She was twenty-two when she married John who was then thirty-seven. Ils ont eu deux filles. The first was born November 27, 1863, and lived only one day. Their second, Johnnie, was born April 7, 1865, following John?s death.

His grandfather, John Wesley Hunt, was an early founder of Lexington and one of the wealthiest men west of the Allegheny Mountains. It is said that he was Lexington?s first millionaire. He had significant investments in merchandising, manufacturing, banking and government securities

John Morgan stood arrow-straight at six feet tall, weighed 185 pounds. He had curly sandy hair and gray eyes. Early in the Civil War, Carrie Pyncheon of Huntsville wrote in her diary, "Before the town was occupied by the Yankees, I spent an evening with Captain Jack [John] Morgan, our second Marion. He was so mild and gentle in his manners that I would not have taken him for a soldier but for his boots and spurs, so unwarrior-like did he seem."

As the war began, he was elected captain of the Morgan Squadron, which formed the nucleus of the 2nd KY cavalry. By the end of 1862, he rose through the ranks and was a brigadier general at the time of the Ohio-Indiana raid.

To the South, he was one of their greatest, their Robin Hood. Northern newspapers called him "The King of Horse Thieves, a bandit, a freebooter, no better than a thug." In the South, he was admired as the "Thunderbolt of the Confederacy."


Héritage[modifier | modifier la source]

Hart County High School, in Munfordville, Kentucky, the site of the Battle for the Bridge, named their mascot the Raiders, in honor of Morgan's men. Also, a large mural in the town depicts Morgan.

Trimble County High School, in Bedford, Kentucky, named their mascot the Raiders, in honor of Morgan's men.

The John Hunt Morgan Memorial statue in Lexington is a tribute to him.

The Hunt-Morgan House, once his home, is a contributing property in a historic district in Lexington.

The General Morgan Inn, located at the spot he was killed in Greeneville, Tennessee is named after him.


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Commentaires:

  1. Maugis

    Ha !!! frais !!!!

  2. Maetthere

    Je suis désolé, mais, à mon avis, ils se sont trompés. Je propose d'en discuter.

  3. Edrik

    Tout à fait juste! C'est une bonne idée. Je t'encourage.

  4. Miska

    Oui! reconforté



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